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Achilles lock: Common foot lock submission executed by exerting pressure on the heel and Achilles tendon.
Americana: A kind of arm lock in which a competitor pins the opponent's arm to the floor, with the arm being bent at the elbow and the palm is facing up.
American top team (ATT): A mixed martial arts academy and top MMA team located in Coconut Creek, Fla.
Anaconda choke: A kind of choke hold. An arm triangle from the front headlock position is achieved by a competitor trapping the opponent's arm with an underhook.
Arm bar: Also called "cross lock", a joint lock achieved by a competitor positioning his or her body against the opponent in a way that traps the opponent's arm between the competitor's knees, and using his/her hips, exerts pressure on the elbow joint by trying to hyper-extend the opponent's elbow or 'bend it backwards'.
Axe kick: A standing kick used against a grounded opponent where the kicker extends his or her leg straight up, and brings it straight down on the opponent like an axe.
Back control: Also called "hooks in", a rear mount position allowing a competitor to wrap his/her legs around the opponent so as to restrict the opponent's movements.
Body slam: Competitor picks up his/her opponent and slams the opponent to the ground.
Boxing: Western fighting style used in MMA repertoire involving fast footwork, strategic punches, and evasive dodges.
Brazilian jiu-jitsu: Style of MMA derived from Japanese jiu-jitsu ("gentle or flexible technique") involving gaining and maintaining strategic positions.
Butterfly guard: The positioning of a fighter's feet on the opponent's thighs in a way that restrict the opponent's movements.
Cage: The competition ring for MMA.
Can opener: The competitor places both hands behind the opponent's neck and pulls the opponent's head towards the competitor.
Catch wrestling: Catching an opponent's limb in order to gain a dominant position.
Choke: A neck hold intended to restrict breathing, or blood flow to the brain.
Clinch: Two fighters facing one another with arms and upper body in a locked position.
Clinch maulers: Technique derived from Grecian-Roman wrestling intended to restrict the opponent using "dirty boxing" moves to the knees and elbows and upper body by employing a combination of underhooks and the Thai Clinch.
Closed guard: The holding of an opponent by interlocking feet behind the opponent.
Collar tie: Grasping the back of the opponent's neck.
Corner: The section outside the fighting ring designated for the fighter's assistant.
Crucifix: Fighter locks his/her opponent's arm between his or her legs by crossing them, and then pins down the other arm with one hand, freeing the fighter's other hand to punch the opponent's head.
D'arce choke: An arm lock named after fighter Joe D'arce, resulting in a kind of choke hold similar to the Anaconda choke.
Decision: A winner is declared by a group of MMA judges.
Dirty boxing: Boxing and wrestling techniques are used in combination to close in on an opponent.
Double leg take-down: Taking down an opponent by grabbing both legs or feet.
DREAM: MMA organization promoted by Fighting and Entertainment Group.
Elbow: A blow to the opponent's head using the elbow.
Elite Xtreme Combat (Elite XC): MMA organization based in the US.
Escape: A competitor escapes a choke hold.
Fish hooking: An illegal act by a fighter hooking his or her finger into the opponent's mouth or ear and pulling down.
Flattening out: Fighter grounds the opponent by jumping onto the opponent's back and performing maneuvers that straighten out the opponent's body, leading him or her to fall flat on the mat.
Flying knee: Jumping knee strike.
Front mount: The top fighter faces the bottom fighter in a straddle position.
Full guard: Fighter assumes a "missionary position" (lying on his or her back) as the fighter attempts to restrain the opponent by holding onto the back of the neck, wrists, or holding the opponent to control their movement.
Full mount: Fighter is on his or her back with the opponent on the fighter's chest in a straddle position, making it difficult for the fighter to buck the opponent off.
Grappling: General term used to denote wrestling, and ground-oriented martial arts.
Gogoplata: A type of choke hold maneuver derived from Brazilian jiu-jitsu, executed by a rubber guard.
Ground or pound: Fighter takes the opponent down and pounds the opponent.
Guard: Grappling position involving one fighter on his or her back with legs wrapped around the opponent while either standing or kneeling.
Guard pass: A fighter moves from the opponent's guard into a mount position.
Guillotine choke: A choke from a position of facing the opponent in a headlock with hands clasped together.
Half guard: Opponent has one leg to the fighter's side with the other between the fighter's legs.
Hammer-fist: A swift blow to an opponent with the pinky side of a closed fist.
Headbutt: Striking an opponent with the head.
Headlock: The fighter wraps his or her arm around the opponent's neck and holds the opponent's head between the fighter's side and arm.
Heel hook: A leg lock executed by applying force to the opponent's ankle and knee by twisting the opponent's foot.
Hip throw: A wrestling move executed by throwing the opponent over the hips.
Hook: A fighter uses his or her side force to cock the opponent's arm at a 90-degree angle in front of their body.
Hooks: Or "putting in the hooks", competitor anchors his or her heels around the opponent's legs.
Jab: A straight punch.
Jiu-jitsu: (See Brazilian jui-jitsu)
Judo: Meaning "yielding", a Japanese martial art dating to the nineteenth century, featuring throws and take-downs.
Karate: A martial arts style developed from Chinese and native fighting techniques featuring knee and elbow strikes, punching, kicking, and open hand moves.
Kesa-gatami: A position like the side mount except the top player is turned more towards the bottom player, and the top player's arm is wrapped around the bottom player's head.
Keylock: Fighter holds his or her opponent's forearm to twist the arm.
Kickboxing: A western boxing style of martial arts characterized by leg strikes.
Kimura: A basic hold similar to the key-lock, executed by bending the opponent's arm in an unnatural direction, applying pressure on the elbow and shoulder joint.
Knee-bar: Hyper-extending the leg at the knee.
KO: Short for "Knock Out".
Krav Maga: "Contact Combat"; an Israeli-derived, hand-to-hand military combat system.
Leg kick: A kick to the opponent's leg.
Leg lock: A finishing hold where the fighter puts pressure on the opponent's knee, ankle, or toes by isolating the opponent's leg or foot.
Liver shot: A hook punch combined with an upper cut to deliver a painful strike to the liver.
Miletich fighting systems: Founded in Bettendorf, Ia., one of the earliest MMA training schools with several affiliate schools.
Mission control: Similar to a rubber guard except the fighter's hand is crossed across his or her opponent's back as the fighter grabs the opponent's ankle.
Mixed martial arts: A mixture of martial arts and hand-to-hand combat techniques.
MMA: An acronym standing for "Mixed Martial Arts".
Muay Thai: A style of kickboxing originating from Thailand.
Mount: A ground position marked by the fighter being on top of the opponent with legs wrapped around the opponent's body.
Neck crank: Spinal lock applied by manipulating the neck beyond its natural range of motion.
No holds barred: A term used to denote an aggressive "anything goes" type of mixed martial arts event dating to the late 1800s, and now banned in Brazil.
North-south position: Players are chest-to-chest with one player's head at the opponent's feet, and vice versa.
Octagon: Eight-sided ring upon which martial arts competitions are played.
Omoplata: A shoulder lock derived from Brazilian jiu-jitsu.
Open guard: A guard position without the feet being locked.
Overhand punch: A punch executed by swinging the fist up and over.
Over-under position: Also called the "50/50" position, it's considered to be the most common clinch position in MMA in which both competitors have one overhook, and one underhook.
Overhooks: A clinch hold used to control the opponent.
Pankration: Greek for "All Powerful", a martial arts sport introduced at the Greek Olympics in 648 B.C. which combines boxing and wrestling elements.
Peruvian necktie: A fighting maneuver used when an opponent shoots in on an opponent's legs for a single or double-leg take-down.
Pinch grip tie: Also called the "over-under body lock"; a fighting maneuver used for bull-rushing and forcing an opponent onto their back. The fighter's arm goes under the opponent's arm and the other goes over the shoulder with both hands clasped together behind the opponent's back.
The Pit: Founded in 1986 by John Hackleman and located in California; this began as a training gym in the art of KaJuKenBo.
Position: A posture assumed during the course of a fight.
Pulling guard: Fighting off the back. Executed by grabbing an opponent and pulling the opponent down into the fighter's full guard.
Rear mount: A mount position in which the top fighter is on the bottom fighter's back.
Rear naked choke: A kind of choke taken from behind the opponent.
Reversal: Fighter moves from an inferior to a superior position.
Reverse mount: Also known as "north-south mount", a position in which the fighters' heads are facing opposite directions.
Rubber guard: A guard position in which the bottom fighter brings his or her leg high up on the top fighter's back and hooks the bottom fighter's leg under the top fighter's arm.
Sambo: A Russian form of martial art that combines elements of wrestling and Japanese Judo.
Sengoku: The first MMA event to take place in 2008 in Tokyo, Japan.
Shoot fighting: A term referring to "real" fighting as opposed to fights that have predetermined outcomes; also refers to a style combining various martial arts elements.
Side control: A position in which a fighter restricts the opponent by lying perpendicularly across the opponent's back.
Side mount: also called "side control", fighters are chest to chest; both legs of one of the fighters are at the side of the opponent.
Single/double-leg take-down: A wrestling move where a fighter's arms are wrapped around the opponent's two thighs, pulling them together and bringing the opponent down.
Spinning back-fist: Before punching the opponent, a fighter starts out facing the opponent, then spins around full circle, building momentum, with fist outstretched.
Spinning back-kick: Similar to "spinning back-fist", but involves a kick.
Sprawl: Defense of a take-down attempt in which the opponent jumps back, and drops his or her weight onto the opponent attempting to take the opponent down.
Straight punch: Reverse hand punch aimed straight toward the fighter's target.
Street fighting: The art of fighting based on experience gained from fighting on the streets.
Striking: Hitting the opponent with the hand, foot, head, elbow, knee, or other body part.
Submission: A fighter "taps out" or concedes to the opponent in order to end a match.
Submission hold: A choke or joint maneuver intended to cause the opponent to yield, or "tap out".
Submission wrestling: A hybrid style of wresting that includes many techniques.
Superman: A fighter fakes a kick, and then while drawing his kicking foot back, swiftly takes a punch with the same-side hand.
Slick submissions: sneaky, fluid moves in a swift effort to bring the fight to the ground.
Straight punch: Reverse punch aimed straight at the target.
Strikeforce Fighting Championship: MMA or kickboxing organization based in San Hose, Calif.
Sweep: A swift move by a competitor, with his or her opponent in guard, to knock the opponent off balance and turn the opponent over to assume a mount position.
Swing-for-the-fences: A fighter "gives it everything they've got" in the final seconds of a round.
Take-down: Getting the opponent to the ground.
Tap out: Submitting to a finishing hold.
Team quest: MMA training camp with branches in Oregon, and California.
Throw: A martial arts move, the most common being the hip toss. Similar to the trip, a fighter holds onto the opponent, steps into the opponent, and the fighter partly puts his or her back to the opponent while twisting the opponent, at the same time pulling the opponent over the fighter's leg, sending the opponent to the floor.
Toe hold: Martial arts technique of hyper-extending the opponent's ankle by grabbing the opponent's foot near the toes and twisting or pushing to apply pressure on the ankle.
Triangle choke: A kind of choke hold using the legs.
Trip: A strategic move where a fighter steps forward, puts his or her front leg behind the opponent's foot, tripping the opponent backwards.
Turtle mount: Also called "rear mount", the back mount position when the fighter's opponent is on "all fours" and the top fighter wraps his or her legs around the opponent's hips for stability.
Twister: Also called "guillotine", a wrestling move in which the fighter faces the opponent's feet while in half guard, and places his or her hand on the opponent's knee before moving into full mount.
Ultimate fighting championship (UFC): U.S.-based mixed martial arts event known in the martial arts world as the largest MMA promotion worldwide.
Underhooks: A clinch hold used to control the opponent.
Uppercut: A punch marked by abruptly raising the fist to the opponent's face or body.
Vale tudo: A Portuguese term meaning "anything goes" and refers to "no holds barred", which is a fighting event now banned in Brazil.
Wrestling: An ancient sporting event characterized by performing a variety of moves intended to take down the opponent.
Wild brawlers: A swinging, slamming style of fighting similar to that of street or prison fighting.
World Victory Road (WVR): A Japanese MMA promotion.
Xtreme Couture: A MMA training organization led by Randy Couture - UFC champion, and co-founder of Team Quest.
Zuffa: Italian for "brawl", or "fight with no rules".